COGEN is a common abbreviation to “Cogeneration” which means generation of heat, in the form of steam, and electric power. The cogeneration concept is considered as the most energy efficiency solution for process plants that requires both steam and power in normal operation. COGEN is composed of gas combustion turbine that consumes fuel to produce electric power via electric generator; the hot flue gases from the turbine are utilized to produce high pressure steam in a heat recovery steam generation (HRSG).

COGEN sizing can be optimized to deliver exactly the required power with maximum possible steam production, known as “Power Match”. It can also be sized to deliver the required steam flowrate with the maximum possible power generation, known as “Thermal Match”.

Energy Targeting

While monitoring the energy performance of a process plant is important, it may be useless without comparison to a benchmarking reference. Many plants will compare its performance to an international reference or similar sister plant in the same company. It may also be compared to an average of the plant historical performance which may be misleading indication. The plant energy target should consider:

– Plant Capacity

– Feed Specification

– Seasonal Impact on Operation

– Plant Design and Configuration

Therefore, plant energy target should be specific for the plant while comparison to other plants should be used only for ranking purposes.

CCP & Tri-Generation

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Combined Cooling and Power (CCP) is an integrated utility system that includes power distribution and chilling or cascade refrigeration systems like in LNG or NGL recovery plants. Modeling of the CCP system should ensure optimum design and sizing of the system components that satisfy the plant operation requirements efficiently. Moreover, it provides an online advisory system to optimize the load on each equipment and the overall utility consumption.

The generation of power and refrigeration can be done in an efficient way as Tri-Generation. Basically, tri-generation system starts with power generation via gas combustion turbines by consuming fuel. The flue gases from the turbine exhaust is then utilized in generating steam which is the second product of the system. Furthermore, steam can drive an Absorption Chiller package unit to produce chilled water or directly chill down a process stream.